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7.1 Zones/Containers

Zones are an OpenIndiana feature that provides operating system-level virtualization. Each zone is managed as a completely separate OpenIndiana machine. Zones have very low overhead and are one of the most efficient forms of OS virtualization.

The global zone is the first zone to boot and requires hardware access. From the global zone, non-global zones are created and booted. Boot time for non-global zones is very fast, often a few seconds. The CPU, network, and memory resources for each zone can be controlled from the global zone, ensuring fair access to system resources. As with other forms of virtualization, each zone is isolated from the other zones – zones cannot see processes or resources used in other zones. The low marginal cost of a zone allows large systems have tens or even hundreds of zones without significant overhead. The theoretical limit to the number of zones on a single platform is 8,192.

An easy way to implement zones is to use a separate ZFS file system as the zone root's backing store. File systems are easy to create in ZFS and zones can take advantage of the ZFS snapshot and clone features. Due to the strong isolation between zones, sharing a file system must be done with traditional file sharing methods (eg NFS).

When each zone is created  it comes with a minimal set of packages, and from there you can add and use most packages and applications as required.

Quick Setup Example

For each zone (in a simple configuration), you really only need a few bits of info.

  • The zone's name - something you can remember it by. For this example I'm naming the zone, example_zone
  • The physical nic - which physical network cards the zone will share. For this example I'm using e1000g0
  • An IP address the zone will use. 192.168.254.200 for this example
  • The mount point in the global zone for the zone's file system. For this example I'm using /export/example_zone

As a user with Primary Administrator role, you create the zone with

zonecfg -z example_zone

create

this puts you inside the zone configuration program where you can change and update settings particular to the zone specified with -z. zonecfg break different resource groups of data, you add a new resource with add. The most important resource is a virtual network card, this is added with add net then details are added and then end closes the editing of this resource. 

add net  

set physical = e1000g0

set address = 192.168.254.200

end

Then tell the zone where its root filesystem will be create and mounted in the global zone

set zonepath=/export/example_zone

Then commit the changes and exit the zone configuration program.

commit

exit

Now all you have to do is install and boot your zone, the install process download the basic packages from your IPS repository and then boot performs a virtual hardware boot of your new zone.

zoneadm -z example_zone install

zoneadm -z example_zone boot

Whilst booting for the first time you will need to ask some basic configuration (you can set this all up via zone configuration before hand), to login is as the zone local console (as if you were sitting in front of a real machine as it boots), type

zlogin -C example_zone

Answer the questions (when it asks you for terminal type, the answer will be in most cases xterm), once done you can log in locally (you will get a login prompt) or you can ssh in via the IP address you provided to zone config.

That is it your zone is now up and running, as zones start with a minimal configuration, you will likely be missing many of the niceties you would expect. All are available via IPS packaging, for example if you miss the editor nano then from your example_zones command prompt type

pkg install nano

In general you are likely to want to install lots of of packages depending on what your using the zone for.

7.2 xVM

7.3 Other.......

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